Servants of Serenissima: Spycraft Maestros of the Adriatic Sea

Members of the Council of Ten, the Republic of Venice’s spy chiefs (dressed in red togas) witness the beheading of Doge Marino Faliero (detail). Artwork by Francesco Hayez, 1867

In terms of espionage, the Republic of Venice settled on the lagoon communities of the Adriatic Sea, was a truly captivating world. From the thirteenth to the eighteenth century, the covert agents of the Serenissima wove a web of secrecy, dedicated to safeguarding the very heart of their state. With their unrivaled expertise in espionage, sabotage, and subterfuge, the spies of the Republic of Venice were the ultimate masters of their craft.

As one of the most influential maritime and commercial powers during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, the Republic of Venice understood the strategic significance of intelligence gathering. The Council of Ten, a body established in the fourteenth century, became the nerve center of Venetian espionage operations. With an extensive network spanning the states on the Adriatic Sea and the whole of Europe, Asia, and beyond, these agents gathered valuable information on political developments, military strategies, and economic rivalries.

Republic of Venice: Agents and Spycraft

The spies of the Republic of Venice employed a range of innovative methods to fulfill their clandestine duties. Disguises, secret codes, and invisible inks were just a few of the tools in the repertoire of Serenissima agents from the Adriatic Sea. The agents of the Serenissima excelled in cryptography, employing complex cipher systems to encode their messages and ensuring that only authorized individuals could decipher them. Furthermore, they pioneered the use of spy networks, relying on informants and double agents strategically placed within rival factions and foreign courts.

Giacomo Girolamo Casanova (1725 – 1798)

Giacomo Casanova, one of the most famous spies of the Adriatic Sea’s Republic of Venice often used a variety of methods and techniques. One of the anecdotes about him says:

“One Monday as Father Balbi was busy at the roof Casanova suddenly heard the sound of opening doors. It was a terrible moment but he had time to give the alarm signal two quick blows on the ceiling. Then Laurent entered bringing another prisoner, an ugly, ill-dressed little man of fifty, in a black wig, who looked like what he was, a spy of the Inquisition. 

Casanova soon learned the history of Soradici – for this was the spy’s name – and when his new companion was asleep he wrote to Balbi the account of what had happened. For the present, evidently the work must be given up, no confidence whatever could be placed in Soradici. Yet soon Casanova thought of a plan of making use even of this traitor. 

First, he ordered Laurent to buy him an image of the Virgin Mary, holy water, and a crucifix. Next he wrote two letters, addressed to friends in Venice – letters in which he made no complaint, but spoke of the benevolence of the Inquisition, and the blessing that his trials had been to him. These letters, which, even if they reached the hands of the secretary, could do him no possible harm, he entrusted to Soradici, in case he should soon be set free; exacting the spy’s solemn oath, on the crucifix and the image of the Virgin, not to betray him, but to give the letters to his friends. Soradici took the oath required of him, and sewed the letters into his vest. None the less, Casanova felt confident that he would be betrayed, and this was exactly what happened. Two days after the spy was sent for to the secretary, and when he returned to the cell his companion soon discovered that he had given up the letters.”

In its history, the agents of the Republic of Venice employed a variety of espionage techniques to gather intelligence and protect the interests of the Serenissima. One of these techniques included exploring the places where the information is. Mario Savorgnano, ambassador of the Republic of Venice to England writes to Signoria about what happened to his companions after they arrived at Dover:

“I remained at the inn, the sea having prostrated me; my companions inspecting the town, near the walls, when they were immediately arrested as spies, and then sent to prison, from which they were released when their quality was known. The town is neither handsome in itself nor large, but it is surrounded by a very fine wall, with bastions and platforms. I consider it very strong, and it is under very close custody.”

Maybe his companions weren’t malicious spies, but the measures the authorities took tell us exploring the places they operated was a common practice of the spies.

Other practices include the following:


The spies of the Republic of Venice were adept at using complex cipher systems to encode their messages. They would often use substitution ciphers, where letters or symbols would be replaced with other letters or symbols according to a predetermined key. This ensured that even if intercepted, the messages would be unintelligible to anyone without the proper decryption key.

Invisible Inks

The agents of the Serenissima utilized various substances to create invisible inks that could only be revealed through specific chemical treatments or exposure to heat. This allowed them to write secret messages on seemingly innocent documents or letters, evading detection.

Code Names and Disguises

The spies from the Adriatic Sea would adopt code names to conceal their true identities and protect their operations. They also frequently employed disguises to move covertly in foreign territories, assuming different roles and appearances to avoid suspicion.

Informants and Double Agents 

Venetian spies relied heavily on informants and double agents strategically placed within rival factions and foreign courts. These individuals provided valuable insider information, enabling the Republic of Venice to stay ahead in diplomatic maneuvers and make informed decisions.

Surveillance and Interception 

The agents from the Adriatic Sea were the masters of surveillance techniques. Their famous techniques involve for example discreetly observing meetings or eavesdropping on conversations. They also intercepted and decoded messages sent by enemy spies or diplomats, gaining insight into their adversaries’ plans and intentions.

Propaganda and Psychological Warfare 

The Adriatic Sea was the place where early modern psywar was mastered. The spies of the Republic of Venice utilized propaganda and psychological tactics to influence public opinion and manipulate the perceptions of rival powers. This included spreading rumors, disseminating false information, and sowing discord among enemy factions.

These examples showcase the diverse range of techniques employed by Venetian spies during the 17th century, enabling them to gather crucial intelligence and maintain the Republic’s dominance.

A Nobleman Called “Il Lupo”

While specific code names and disguises used by the spies from the Adriatic Sea’s Serenissima may not be extensively documented, there are some general code names used more often. Il Lupo, La Colomba, and Il Falco were some of the codenames the agents from the Republic of Venice employed. Here is the list of the most common code names: 

“Il Lupo” (The Wolf)

“La Colomba” (The Dove)

“Il Serpente” (The Serpent)

“Il Falco” (The Falcon)

“La Tigre” (The Tiger)

“L’Ombra” (The Shadow)

“Il Gobbo” (The Hunchback)

“Il Cardinale” (The Cardinal)

“La Strega” (The Witch)

“Il Pellegrino” (The Pilgrim)


The common practice within the field of espionage also involves disguises. Depending on the tasks, the agents of Adriatic Sea’s Serenissima took disguise as the people who will easily “blend in” with the environment. Therefore, not all noblemen, merchants, and clergy were real. Some of them were undercover agents. Here are some most common disguises… 


High society fashion. France, 17th century

Venetian spies might adopt the guise of a wealthy nobleman or aristocrat, using elegant clothing and accessories to blend in with high society. So, maybe some distinguished and elegant nobleman wasn’t a nobleman, but the agent called “Il Lupo.”

Merchant/ Trader 

16th-century trader. Artwork by Hans Holbein the Younger, 1532

Assuming the role of a merchant or trader, spies could traverse different cities and regions, interacting with individuals from various backgrounds while gathering information.


Disguising themselves as members of the clergy, spies could gain access to religious institutions, influential figures, and confidential conversations.


Servant, 18th century. Image: The chess game by Henri Brispot (1846–1928)

Taking on the role of a servant or domestic worker allowed spies to move discreetly within households and gather valuable information unnoticed.


As pilgrims on a spiritual journey, spies could travel to different regions or countries, utilizing the cover of religious devotion to observe and collect intelligence.


Adopting the persona of an artist or musician, spies could infiltrate social circles and gatherings, using their talents as a cover for their true intentions.

Boche de Leon (A Lion’s Mouth), a container similar to today’s mailboxes, intended to collect secret denunciations. Image: CC BY-SA 4.0

The impact of these agents from the Adriatic Sea’s Republic of Venice extended beyond their time, leaving a lasting legacy on the city-state’s political and economic dominance. By strategically gathering information and influencing key decisions, the agents of the Serenissima played a crucial role in Venice’s ability to maintain its trade routes and secure its diplomatic relationships. Furthermore, the Venetian Republic’s emphasis on intelligence gathering set a precedent for modern espionage practices. Their methods of encryption, surveillance, and network building laid the foundation for future generations of spies.

Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts Relating, to English Affairs, Existing in the Archives and Collections of Venice And in Other Libraries of Northern Italy, Volume 4. Great Britain, Public Record Office, 1871. URL:
Lang, A (ed.) The True Story Book. Longmans, Green, and Company, 1893. URL:

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